How to disable the LEDs on the PogoPlug running Debian Squeeze

How to disable the LEDs on the PogoPlug running Debian Squeeze If you’ve installed Debian Squeeze on the PogoPlug you’ll notice there is no longer an /sys/module/xce/sections/ or /dev/xce path for you to echo commands to. However, you can still control the LEDs by using the sys -> devices -> platform -> LEDS / GPIO

How to disable the LEDs

echo 0 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/brightness
echo 0 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/brightness

How to make the LED green

echo 0 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/brightness
echo 1 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/brightness

How to make the LED red

echo 1 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/brightness
echo 0 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/brightness

How to make the LED orange / yellow

echo 1 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/brightness
echo 1 > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/brightness

You can also try using values 1-255 to control the brightness but I didn’t see much difference between different numbers. ymmv.

Also, if you wish to read the status of the LEDs you can do so by using something like cat with these paths:

cat /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/brightness

A value of 0 indicates the LED is off.

Most likely if you are running Debian there will be no events that turn the LEDs on – but in case you have issues you can disable system events from triggering the LEDS you also need to change the ‘triggers’ – first check out the existing ones:

 cat /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/trigger

This results in:

 [none] nand-disk timer oneshot ide-disk1 ide-disk2 heartbeat gpio default-on mmc0

And for the red led use:

 cat /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/trigger

Which should result in:

 [none] nand-disk timer oneshot ide-disk1 ide-disk2 heartbeat gpio default-on mmc0

Next, to disable the events from triggering the LEDs run:

 echo none > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:green:health/trigger
 echo none > /sys/devices/platform/leds-gpio/leds/status:red:fault/trigger
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How to setup cPanel on Amazon EC2 with Centos 6.4

I had a lot of problems setting up a cPanel server on Amazon EC2.

On my first attempt I used a CentOS image from the AWS marketplace but using one of these images has a very bad side effect of not being able to resize, clone, and/or mount the root file system to another instance ( think about the issues with data recovery or fixing an un-bootable ec2 instance – yuck ) – this is what dgFactor is referring to in his comment

My next attempt I had launched the instance but after it was launched cPanel would not install, giving errors similar to:

[20130131.123334]   Setting up Install Process
[20130131.123334]   No package wget available.
[20130131.123335]   Nothing to do
[20130131.123339] E Sysup: Needed system RPMs were not installed: wget
[20130131.123339] ***** FATAL: Cannot proceed. Needed system RPMs were not installed.
[20130131.123339]   The Administrator will be notified to review this output when this script completes
[20130131.123339] E Detected events which require user notification during updatenow. Will send iContact the log
=> Log closed Thu Jan 31 12:33:39 2013
[20130131.123339] E Running `/usr/local/cpanel/scripts/updatenow --upcp --log=/var/cpanel/updatelogs/update.1359657200.log` failed, exited with code 4608
=> Log closed Thu Jan 31 12:33:39 2013

What seems to have happened here is that the file system was full. Even though I had increased the default drive size from 5GB to 40GB when the system booted the additional space was unavailable:

How to setup cPanel on Amazon EC2 with Centos 6.4

This can be confirmed from SSH after connecting to the instance:

[root@ip-101-11-2-133 ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1            5.0G  1.3G  3.4G  28% /
tmpfs                 1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev/shm
[root@ip-172-30-0-165 ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/xvda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 5221 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xeabcdefg
    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvda1               1         652     5237158+  83  Linux
[root@ip-101-11-2-133 ~]#

Steps to setup cPanel on Amazon EC2 with Centos 6.4

  1. Pick a amazon machine image (ami) image from bashton’s blog – I used a HVM version as they allow selecting any flavor of instance and all of the ‘current generation’ instances
  2. After booting the instance, shut it down and then follow the steps from Wilman Arambillete’s answer with particular attention to the comment by Garreth McDaid regarding resize2fs

After completing these steps and switching your attached volumes so that the resized one is your primary (and only) drive mounted at /dev/sda1 things should be working well.

One thing I found odd was that CentOS seemed to boot to the secondary attached drive /dev/xvdf – but I’m not positive if it was actually booting to this drive or just showing as if it was the primary (root) drive. Nonetheless, the steps from Garreth seemed to get things working.

cPanel / WHM software installer

Now, to start the actual cPanel / WHM software installer script

sudo yum install screen wget -y

Once screen is installed, start a new session typing:

screen

That last step is important because if you don’t have screen running and your SSH session disconnects the installer may exit before cPanel setup has completed – and sometimes setup can take a few hours.

Use this this command to download the installer for cPanel with WHM:

wget -N http://httpupdate.cPanel.net/latest

Use this command to download the installer for DNS only version of cPanel:

wget -N http://httpupdate.cPanel.net/latest-dnsonly

After that script downloads, start

sh latest

You can find tips on how to use screen elsewhere so I won’t go into detail here, but to detach screen type: Ctrl-a-d which is done by holding Ctrl and pressing a then pressing d then releasing Ctrl

To reattach to your screen you can use the command:

screen -r

If you like screen you can also check out tmux but it is harder to get installed on CentOS 6 ( not installable with yum by default )

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Exclude fstab entries that use BIND from nagios nrpe check_disk / check_all_disks

Say you have an /etc/fstab file with an entry for bind:

   tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
   devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
   sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
   proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
** /root/special/folder    /home/user1/folder      none    bind            0 0

If you run the nagios nrpe command (below) as root everything works fine:

/usr/lib64/nagios/plugins/check_disk -w 8% -c 5% -A -x /dev/shm -X nfs -X bind -i /boot

However, when you run this as the nagios user it fails (as is expected since the nagios does not have access to this folder):

sudo -u nagios /usr/lib64/nagios/plugins/check_disk -w 8% -c 5% -A -x /dev/shm -X nfs -X bind -i /boot
DISK CRITICAL - /home/user1/folder is not accessible: Permission denied

Since the nrpe checks are done with nagios a solution is needed. You could exclude the path specifically, using the -x flag:

`-x /home/user1/folder`

But you’d have to do that each time you make any changes to the /etc/fstab file.

In the commands above I left in the -X bind flag, which I attempted, although it does not work. I also tried -X bindfs with no luck.

There are some other flags for different types of file systems.

-X tmpfs
-X devpts
-X sysfs
-X proc
-X binfmt_misc
-X rpc_pipefs
-X nfs

These can also be written as:

--exclude-type=tmpfs
--exclude-type=devpts
--exclude-type=sysfs
--exclude-type=proc
--exclude-type=binfmt_misc
--exclude-type=rpc_pipefs
--exclude-type=nfs

However, the one that is needed to exclude the bind is actually the none file system, or -X none or --exclude-type=none

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How to update bash on Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick – fix shellshock

Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick is now past the end-of-life / end-of-support phase so it will no longer be getting any updates, including security updates. To update / patch bash you must do so from source. Here are the commands to download the source for bash and build and install it.

Update – the instructions below were previous instructions, but to prevent the continuous need to apply patches there is an updated method using git:

New Method 1

This method downloads a tarball of the latest source code and is around 7MB in size.

wget "http://git.savannah.gnu.org/cgit/bash.git/snapshot/bash-master.tar.gz"
unzip bash-master.tar.gz
cd bash-master
./configure
make
make install

New Method 2

This method uses git and requires ~ 150MB of space ( includes version history ) but makes future updates easier with a git pull:

git clone git://git.sv.gnu.org/bash.git
cd bash
./configure
make
make install

Old Method

mkdir src
cd src
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.3.tar.gz
#download all patches
for i in $(seq -f "%03g" 0 27); do wget     http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.3-patches/bash43-$i; done
tar zxvf bash-4.3.tar.gz
cd bash-4.3
#apply all patches
for i in $(seq -f "%03g" 0 27);do patch -p0 < ../bash43-$i; done
#build and install
./configure && make && make install
cd ..
cd ..
rm -r src

Testing Bash for Shellshock

Paste this into a terminal

env x='() { :;}; echo vulnerable' bash -c "echo this is a test"

Desired Result

bash: warning: x: ignoring function definition attempt
bash: error importing function definition for `x'
this is a test

If you get something like the above message you’re good

Old method source: Hacker News

List of support dates for Ubuntu ( from wikipedia’s Ubuntu page ):

How to update bash on Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick – fix shellshock

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Chrome Developer Tools now Open on Right opposed to Opening on the Bottom

If you’ve downloaded a recent beta or canary build of Google Chrome you may notice that sometimes the “developer tools” seem to open at the right instead of at the bottom. If you’re not using a large, wide-screen monitor you may find this inconvenient. Unfortunately it seem the Chromium Developer’s personal preferences have to come before user-experience.

If you want the default setting for the position of Chrome’s Developer tools to be customizable, you’re out of luck. It will attempt to use your last-used preference, but you’ll notice that with incognito mode it will always end up being on the right. Because it is more convenient for the developers, and easier for them to change a default value string rather than code in an actual preference.

Wouldn’t it be nice to do this:

Chrome Developer Tools now Open on Right opposed to Opening on the Bottom

Unfortunately, that is not currently available. So what should you do? Star it, and complain about it here.

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Stay.app’s “Restore All Windows” command from Applescript

If you want to use applescript to run cordlessdog.com‘s Stay.app command “Restore All Windows” command from Applescript, here is how to do it:

tell application "Stay"
    set resultBoolean to restore all windows
end tell

Stay.app’s “Restore All Windows” command from Applescript

Stay.app supports 5 applescript commands which are:

  • restore active application windows
  • restore all windows
  • store active application windows
  • store active window
  • store all windows
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Ruby’s RVM, Shebang, dotfiles, and cron

When attempting to run cron files, and files remotely via SSH there were some issues. My default shell is zsh and the rvm setup is pretty standard too. ( Assuming that you already have rvm installed )

From the documentation page there is this note:

There are five startup files that zsh will read commands from:

$ZDOTDIR/.zshenv
$ZDOTDIR/.zprofile
$ZDOTDIR/.zshrc
$ZDOTDIR/.zlogin
$ZDOTDIR/.zlogout

If ZDOTDIR is not set, then the value of HOME is used; this is the usual case.

In the /etc/zsh/zprofile file there was a line that did this:

test -f /etc/profile.d/rvm.sh && source /etc/profile.d/rvm.sh

I commented that line out, which is loaded for interactive shells, and moved it instead to /etc/zsh/zshenv which is loaded for both interactive and non-interactive shells.

This allows us to add the shebang #!/usr/bin/env ruby to the top of my .rb files, do a chmod +x and then run them directly ( eg: $ ./my-script.rb )

I don’t know if that is the most “proper” way of getting my scripts to work but it seems to work well for me.

For cron jobs ( in the file edited by crontab -e ) you may want to add something like this as your first line:

SHELL="/usr/bin/zsh"

That would basically change the default shell for cron jobs. Again, your milage may vary and this probably won’t work on shared hosting platforms.

You can also check your setup to make sure that rvm is installed correctly by typing rvm info – if it gives you any errors search for solutions and fix them. If that command is not found then you probably need to install rvm again ( or perhaps try logging out and logging in again )

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Chrome Breaks Custom Search Engines – version 37.0.2062.94

Google Chrome version 37.0.2062.94 breaks custom search engines. Yep, that’s right. If you had added custom search engines ( and custom shortcuts ) in your Chrome preferences they will not work in incognito mode with this version of Chrome, at least on Mac OS X. This has been an issue even with this version of chrome was in BETA mode, but now it is also affecting the “stable” version.

It may be worth it to downgrade to an older version of Chrome. If you do this you may get the message about “Your profile is from a newer version of Google Chrome” but that can easily be remedied. ( just search for the message )

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Install mitmproxy from source on Ubuntu

If you want to live on the dangerous side, you can install mitmproxy from its master branch. If you encounter any bugs, please do us the favor and report them on the Github issue tracker briefly.

Install from source using PIP

pip uninstall mitmproxy netlib
pip install git+https://github.com/mitmproxy/netlib.git@master
pip install git+https://github.com/mitmproxy/mitmproxy.git@master

Install from source on Ubuntu

Installing mitmproxy master from sources on stock Ubuntu – first uninstall using:

pip uninstall mitmproxy netlib

Now install the required tools:

$ sudo apt-get install -y build-essential libssl-dev libffi-dev python-dev python-pip libxml2-dev libxslt-dev git

Now install with sudo:

$ sudo pip install git+https://github.com/mitmproxy/netlib.git@master
$ sudo pip install git+https://github.com/mitmproxy/mitmproxy.git@master

Now start up a python console and paste in these two commands – this is a workaround for issue 32 :

$ sudo python  #
>>> from netlib import certffi
>>> exit()

Source: github gist

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Install syslinux 3.86 on Ubuntu

Get the syslinux 3.86 download from here, maybe the syslinux-3.86.tar.gz file

To build syslinux-3.86 on Ubuntu, Debian, and similar:

apt-get install build-essential nasm
cd /tmp
wget "https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/3.xx/syslinux-3.86.tar.gz"
tar -xf syslinux-3.86.tar.gz
cd /tmp/syslinux-3.86
make

you will most likely get some errors about building for windows, but when this process finishes you will have the 3.86 version of syslinux working.

Execute the main program by running:

/tmp/syslinux-3.86/linux/syslinux

You can also do a make install but that may conflict with other versions of syslinux you have installed ( if you have already tried apt-get install syslinux, for example)

Another note, you can run apt-get install syslinux-legacy to get a version of syslinux that is around 3.63 to 3.82:

Check all of the versions by doing something like this:

$ which syslinux
/usr/bin/syslinux
$ strings /usr/bin/syslinux | grep SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX 4.05
SYSLINUX 4.05 20140113
$ which syslinux-legacy
/usr/bin/syslinux-legacy
$ strings /usr/bin/syslinux-legacy | grep SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX 3.63 Debian-2012-04-16
$ strings /tmp/syslinux-3.86/linux/syslinux | grep SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX 3.86 0x53e5a115
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